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                              美國APICS權威定義:APS與SCP
                              2022-02-07

                              高級的工具和分析應用來幫助各個層面的計劃,但一般都是重點突出,而不是廣泛。這里介紹的高級的工具是:供應鏈計劃(SCP)和高級計劃和優化排程(APS)。

                               

                              SCP和APS之間的主要區別是,SCP更多的是一種管理手段為了整體供應鏈的決策,而APS是一旦戰略重點已經確定,用于詳細的系統優化。 SCP是聚焦模擬各種管理優先效應的工具; APS是廣泛用于計劃和控制的工具。 SCP的管理供應渠道的限制,找到最佳的成本,與主要供應商提供安全溝通,形成整個供應鏈的開始和結束一個特設的基礎網絡。 APS的重點是詳細工廠級的約束,通過多工廠和同步與工作負荷能力。當然,這些系統有很大的重疊功能。

                               

                              SCP和APS使用分析與應用用數學建模,優化和啟發式技術和模擬。通常包括兩種,用戶友好的計劃工具如可視化交互式記分卡(甘特圖)和手工拖拉功能。這些高級的工具可以幫助戰略、戰術和操作層面的計劃,但不執行交易本身。

                               

                              在戰略層面上,這些系統進行物流網絡設計。對于一個制造公司,這將包括確定工廠、倉庫和配送中心,其中包括供應鏈將是所有方面肯由第三方簽約的設施。

                               

                              在戰術層面,供應鏈的主計劃有利于最大限度地在整個供應鏈中的運輸和庫存中使用優化的生產和分銷。供應鏈的主計劃,旨在最大限度地提高利潤,降低成本,同時考慮到季節性,促銷,競爭,能力和需求。該中期和短期優化和模擬的結果成為供應鏈的主計劃。該計劃包括生產計劃優化和詳細的事件序列的交易系統,它保證了物料和能力的可用性和同步地流動。從這些計劃的反饋有助于不斷改善供應鏈的計劃。

                               

                              在運作層面,高級的工具可以建立需求預測,需求計劃,庫存計劃,運輸計劃,并幫助優化日生產排程。當瓶頸出現或模擬時這些系統可以解除瓶頸壓力。有一個與這些系統和工具有很大的重疊,如SCEM。這個領域還包括協同規劃,預測和補貨(CPFR)。

                               

                              APS是管理供應鏈最重要的系統,就象ERP系統,也形成了應用模塊化工具有利于管理者管理擴展的供應鏈,有些APS系統已經包含了SCP的功能。

                               

                              SCP 功能:

                               

                              -SCV(供應鏈可視性)直接連結SCEM(供應鏈事件管理)

                              - 戰略網絡設計

                              -需求計劃

                              - 供應計劃

                              -履約排程

                              -CPFR

                              -產品生命周期管理工具

                               

                              APS 功能:

                               

                              -基于業務規則的資源和物料優化

                              -模擬仿真使用內存駐留技術來提供快速計算和多個“假設”場景

                              -運作的同步

                              -有限排程(能力的限制)

                              -約束管理

                              -動態提前期計算:基于業務規則和復雜系統

                              -同時考慮物料和能力的約束,以確保兩者可用。

                              -懲罰成本管理-使用非優化工藝或設備的成本。

                               

                              *摘自美國 APICS《 2008 Using Information Technology to Enable Supply Chain Management》 Page 109-117

                               

                              原文:

                               

                              Advanced tools and analytical applications help planning at all levels but are generally tightly focused rather than broad. The advanced tools covered here are supply chain planning (SCP) and advance planning and optimization/scheduling (APS).

                               

                              The key difference between SCP and APS is that the SCP is more of a management tool for making holistic supply chain decisions while APS is used for detailed system optimization once those strategic priorities have been set. SCP is a narrowly focused tool for simulating the effect of various management priorities; APS is broad set of planning and control tools. SCP manages supply channel constraints, finds optimal cost, provides secure communication with key suppliers ,and forms networks across the supply chain that can be started and ended on an ad hoc basis. APS addresses granular constraints at the plant level across multiple plants and synchronizes capacity with work load . However ,these system have overlapping functionality, which is covered first.

                               

                              SCP and APS use analytical applications such as mathematical and heuristic modeling and optimizing techniques and simulations. Both usually include user-friendly planning tools such as interactive scorecards and drag-and-drop functionality in their interfaces. These advanced tools help plan at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels but do not perform transactions themselves.

                               

                              At the strategic level, these systems perform logistics network design. For a manufacturing company, this would include determining the location of factories, warehouses, and distribution centers, including which aspects of the supply chain will be owned and which will be contracted from a third party.

                               

                               

                              At the tactical level, supply chain master planning helps optimize production and distribution by maximizing the use of transportation and inventory across the supply chain. Supply chain master planning seeks to maximize profit and minimize cost while taking seasonality, promotions, the competition, capacity, and demand into consideration. The output of the medium- and short-term optimization and simulations becomes the supply chain master plan. This planincludes optimizations for production planning and feeds a detailed sequence of events to the transactional systems, It ensures the availability of materials and capacity and synchronizes their flow. Feedback from these plans helps continuously improve supply chain planning.

                               

                              At the operational planning level , advanced tools create demand forecasts, demand plans, inventory plan, and transportation plans and help optimize daily production seheduling .These systems remove pressure from bottlenecks in systems as they occur or in simulations. There is a great deal of overlap with these systems and tools such as SCEM. This area also includes collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR).

                               

                               

                              SCP functions:

                               

                              -SCV (supply chain visibility) link directly with SCEM(supply chain event management)

                              -Strategic network design

                              -Demand planning

                              -Supply planning

                              -Fulfillment scheduling

                              -CPFR

                              -Product life cycle management tools

                               

                              APS functions:

                               

                              -Resource and materials optimization using business rules

                              -Simulation using memory-resident technology to provide fast turnaround of results and multiple “what-if” scenarios

                              -Synchronization of operation

                              -Finite scheduling (recognizes capacity constraints)

                              -Constraint management

                              -Dynamic lead time calculation following business rules and compensating for complex systems

                              -Simultaneous material and capacity consideration to ensure that both are available as needed.

                              -Penalty management –the cost for using non-optimum routing or equipment.

                               

                               

                               

                               

                              APSS高級計劃與排程協會簡介:

                               

                              APSS (Advanced Planning and Scheduling Society)建立于2004年7月,主要致力于在制造和服務公司普及推廣高級計劃與排程知識.對制造業的公司來說,精確的計劃,短的周期,可預計的交貨的需求已經把計劃提升到極為重要的地位.

                              APSS專注通過選擇和推廣APS技術提高改善制造供應鏈的效率和利潤, APSS目標是縮小計劃排程理論和當前制造實踐的差異,結合供應鏈優化、精益生產和信息化技術消除制造企業的“三高”:高交期、高庫存、高成本。

                              主要服務內容:

                              1.、主持高級計劃與排程協會APSS 和www.itapss.org APS公共知識網站

                              2、高效的計劃體系與APS培訓

                              3、鑄就中國企業精益之道培訓

                              4、多品種小批量的按單柔性生產培訓

                              5、世界級供應鏈培訓

                              6、戰略采購培訓

                              7、S&OP需求與銷售運作計劃培訓

                              8、項目制造培訓

                              9、節拍裝配線管理培訓

                              10、作業成本ABC實踐培訓

                               

                              聯系電話:13851405401 電子郵件:itycai@163.com 網站:www.itapss.org

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